The Industrial Revolution made our lives easier, but did it make them better? The main features involved in the Industrial Revolution were technological, socioeconomic, and cultural.
However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term.
This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,  beginning in the second half of the 18th century.
By the s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles — mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.
Iron making — the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. The steam engine began being used to pump water to power blast air in the mid s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power.
It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge.
Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades. Invention of machine tools — The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathecylinder boring machine and the milling machine.
Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution British textile industry statistics In Britain imported 2. In raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines.
Value added by the British woollen industry was Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately in In approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by In cotton spun amounted to 5.
In less than 0. In there were 50, spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.F ive years ago, Christian Giordano was a young architect who had worked his way up to the role of director of architectural design at HLW International when a friend and former colleague rang him up about a career opportunity.
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Commercial Revolution, Great increase in commerce in Europe that began in the late Middle Ages. It received stimulus from the voyages of exploration undertaken by England, Spain, and other nations to Africa, Asia, and the New World. Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.
This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of .
"Revolution" is a song by the Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. Three versions of the song were recorded in , all during sessions for the Beatles' self-titled double album, commonly known as "the White Album": a slow, bluesy arrangement (titled "Revolution 1") that would make the final cut for the LP; a more abstract musical collage (titled "Revolution 9.
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